Brachystelma gerrardii (Gentianales - Apocynaceae) is a South African plant exceptionally rare, with subpopulations usually consisting of no more than 10 mature individuals. Locally it is considered a threatened species .
There are black and blue-green metallic color forms of Brachystelma gerrardii flowers. This black one is common in the more northerly reaches of the distribution area .
The death of Phillip Seymour Hoffman has sparked some strong and seemingly contradictory responses. What these reactions show is that many people find it hard to think of addiction as being anything except either a choice or a loss of free will.
The fact that addiction could involve an active choice to take drugs but still be utterly irresistible seems difficult for most people to fathom.
Let’s take some reactions from the media. Over at Time, David Sheff wrotethat “it wasn’t Hoffman’s fault that he relapsed. It was the fault of a disease”. On the other hand, at Deadspin, Tim Grierson wrote that the drug taking was “thoughtless and irresponsible, leaving behind three children and a partner”.
So does addiction trap people within its claws or do drug users die from their own actions? It’s worth noting that this is a politicised debate. Those who favour a focus on social factors prefer prefer the ‘trap’ idea, those who prefer to emphasise individual responsibility like the ‘your own actions’ approach.
Those who want to tread the middle ground or aim to be diplomatic suggest it’s ‘half and half’ – but actually it’s both at the same time, and these are not, as most people believe, contradictory explanations.
To start, it’s worth thinking about how heroin has its effect at all. Heroin is metabolised to morphine which then binds to opioid receptors in the brain. It seems to be the effects in the nucleus accumbens and limbic systemwhich are associated with the pleasure and reward associated with the drug.
But in terms of motivating actions, it is a remarkably non-specific drug and it doesn’t directly cause specific behaviours.